The business of NGOs
Voluntary organizations have played important role in the socio-economic development of the nation. From Gandhian organizations to present micro-finance institutions all have worked for the welfare and empowerment of common people. 
According to David C. Korten, "voluntary organissation is the instrument through which citizen volunteers establish an identity and legal recognition for their collective endeavours. It provides their organizational support system and their means for aggregating resources for endeavours that require more than individual action. The voluntary organization, in purist expression, exists to project the social commitment of its citizen volunteers". (Korten David C.(1996), Getting into 21st century, Kumarian Press, West Hartford, USA.).
Voluntary organizations are formed or established by few volunteers. A volunteer is someone who does socially useful work because he feels that work needs doing. He chooses it by his own free will without being forced and without putting any benefit as a pre-condition. Volunteers have in built spirit of voluntarism. Voluntarism is the desire to achieve some common social or humane purpose by contributing money or service for the purpose without any compulsion to do so and without expecting returns for one's own benefit. A voluntary organization is an organization established through such voluntarism. Voluntary organizations are referred as non-government organizations (NGOs), civil society organizations (CSOs), etc.
"Microfinance in India: A State of the Sector Report, 2006"; a report prepared by Prabhu Ghate and published by Microfinance India and jointly sponsored by Care, Ford Foundation and Swiss Agency for Development & Cooperation; says that 'microfinance in India has emerged as a powerful tool for financial inclusion, reaching out to a fifth of all poor households who are yet to be reached by the formal financial sector. The larger of the two main models, the self-help group bank linkage programme (SBLP) covered about 143 million poor households till March 2006 and provided indirect access to the banking system to another 14 million. The other, microfinance institution (MFI) model, served 7.3 million households, of which 3.2 million were poor.'  A considerable gap exists between demand and supply for all financial services-70 percent of the rural poor (marginal/landless farmers) do not have a deposit account, 87 percent do not have access to credit and less than 15 percent of these households have any kind of insurance. Negligible numbers have access to health insurance (0.4%) and crop insurance (0.2%). Importantly, 56.1% of the poor still borrow from informal sources, including moneylenders, friends and relatives and other sources.
After the nationalization of banks, government's policy of "Social and Development Banking" sought to extend banking to uncovered rural areas, outreach activities and disadvantaged groups. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee announced in the budget 20010-11 that to reach the banking services to the aam aadmi (common man), the Reserve Bank of India has set up a high level committee on the lead bank scheme. On the basis of recommendations of the committee, it has been decided to provide appropriate banking facilities to habitations having population in excess of 2000 by March 2012. It is also proposed to extend insurance and other services to the targeted beneficiaries. These services will be provided using Business Correspondent and other models with appropriate technology back-up. By this arrangement, it is proposed to cover 60,000 habitations".
During the training programme for the representatives of NGOs, it was requested by trainees that similar programmes must be organized for the capacity building of functionaries of voluntary organizations. Although voluntary organizations are employing professionally qualified volunteers but due to the fast change taking place in the voluntary sector, it is necessary to measure the capacity of staff and  effectiveness of programmes.  
Government declared the National Policy on the Voluntary Sector in 2007. the preamble of the policy outlines that the policy is a commitment to encourage enable and compose an independent, creative and effective voluntary sectorwith diversity in form and functions so that it can contribute to the social, cultural and economic advancement of the people of India.
EA Narayana conducted a study of 33 NGOs spread over 3 geographical regions. He observed that quarter of NGOs were established by individuals committed to Gandhian approach. About 18% of NGOs were inspired by spiritualism, while 15% of the organizations were started by individuals who were fired by the zeal to uplift the under privileged groups. Three-fourth of the members on the managing committee were graduates, postgraduates and professionals. With regard to their occupational background, full time social workers constitute the largest population (about 44%), followed by employees (18%), religious workers (14%) and others (24%). (Narayana EA(1990)"Voluntary organizations and rural development in India", Uppal Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 135-169).
Financial resource is most critical and sought resource by the voluntary sector. The corporate contribution to voluntary sector during 2005-06 was Rs. 22,500 crores, inviting a tax exemption of Rs. 5000 crore, while government and foreign funding were pegged around Rs. 8000 crore each. (Sinha, Ashish, "Enforce national policy on NGOs:Plan Panel", Times of India, August 14.). Two of the world's richest men Bill Gates of Microsoft and Warren Buffet of Berkshire Hathaway pledged over $60 billion for the corpus of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for social cause and health care.     
Many NGOs are involved in the service delivery to improve the lives of poor people. The voluntary sector expanded to address the reluctant failures by governments by establishing its own more sensitive local mechanism for the delivery of services. A grave charge on service delivery NGOs is that this approach frequently neglected the issues of power and structural injustice, which actually led to the denial of rights Mander, Harsh (2006): "Rights as struggle: towards   a more just and human world", in unheard Voices, Citizens Global Platform, pp. 12.)

The two sides of coin
NGOs in India have been recognized for their good work. Be it Magsasay Award to Rajendra Singh of Tarun Bharat Sangh or Dileep Joshi of PRADAN. NGOs are the real force behind the Right to Information and other socially relevant regulations. From highlighting the issue of child labour under the leadership of Kailash Satyarthi and Swami Agnivesh to work against the atrocities on women, NGOs played creative role in shaping modern India. 
There is another story also. Cases of CBI enquiry against NGOs and blacklisting of NGOs on the charges of misappropriation of funds received from funding agencies like CAPART are reported from time to time. This creates challenges and opportunities both. There has been strong criticism on work ethics and character of NGOs. Almeida (2007) writes, "India has 1.2 million registered NGOs. This number is cause for both alarm and happiness. NGOs do exemplary work, while few are hoaxes. The NGOs who do exemplary work believe in brand building exercises through delivery mechanism, participatory management, effective monitoring, evaluation and programme management. While NGOs in other category, focus only on chasing down funds from anyone and everyone who might be handling them out. Some NGOs are nothing more than giant money laundering operations. This has happened because provisions like  35 (AC) and 35 (1 and 2) of the Income Tax Act permit 100% tax exemption to rogue money from large corporations. These organizations dole out crores of rupees, more to earn tax break than to actually benefit a cause (Almeida, Terninio (2007): "The business of NGOs", Business world, August 20).
NGOs are becoming drivers of national economies. Laster M. Soalamon conducted a study on the rapid growth of NGOs which found them as major economic force. The study covering countries like France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, UK, US, Brazil, Ghana, India and Thailand supports the view that the sector is undoubtedly making fast strides in many sphere of human activity. The sector has turned to be a big employer offering seven million people in the US, 1.4 million in Japan, 1 million in France, Germany and U.K. combined. It found that the sector is spending huge sums varying from 1.2 percent of the GDP in Hungary to 6.3 percent in the US with an average of 3.5 per cent. 

International funding
Total 14,700 received Rs. 4856 crore as financial contribution in 2003-04, 3403 crore in 1998-99, Rs. 230 crore in 1986 and Rs. 24 crore in 1968 (Biswas, Nilanjana (2006), "On funding and the NGO sector", The Economic and Political Weekly, October 21). In 2000-01, total receipt by NGOs for religious activities was Rs. 284 crore, while this receipt was increased by 37.6 per cent to 391 crore in 2002-03. NGOs from least developed states received lesser share of international aid. 839 NGOs in Delhi received Rs. 794.5 crore, NGOs in Tamil Nadu received Rs. 649.45 crore and in Andhra Pradesh received Rs. 589.52 crore in 2003-04. NGOs with head quarter in Bangalore received Rs. 362.2 crore while those having head quarter in Chennai and Delhi received Rs. 311.6 crore and Rs. 298.3 crore respectively. Andhra Pradesh based Satya Sai Central Trust was the largest receiver of financial contribution of Rs.88.18 crore while World Vision of India of Tamil Nadu receive Rs. 85.42 crore and Maharashtra based Watch Tower Bible and Tract received Rs. 74.88 crore from foreign sources in 2003-04.Larger share was sought for rural development as Rs. 547 crore, then health and family welfare as Rs. 432.98 crore and relief from natural disaster as Rs. 339.77 crore in 2003-04. International agencies based in USA channeled Rs. 1492 crore , UK: Rs. 677.59 crore, Germany: Rs. 664.51 crore in 2003-04. World Vision of America was the largest donor with Rs. 80.43 crore, then Foster Parents Plan International and Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society also from America provided Rs. 71.2 crore and Vincent Ferer of Spain provided Rs. 63.1 crore to Indian NGOs as financial contribution in 2003-04. (Sahara Samay, July 23, 2005).
Ministry of Home Affairs published a report on foreign assistance to NGOs in 1997-98. According to this report, USA's Christian Children's Fund topped the list with the donation of Rs. 64.78 crores. Other agencies including ESE Germany: Rs. 55.46 crore, International Catholic Missionary Work: 48.9 crore, KNH Germany: Rs. 46 crore emerged as largest donors. The report listed other agencies like WRI USA: Rs. 37.46 crore, Age of Enlightment Trust UK: Rs. 27 crore, Inter Search Coordination Committee Netherland: Rs. 32 crore, Opera Don Bosco Italy: Rs. 19.90 crore, Bread for the World Germany: Rs. 16 crore and many others. Indian NGOs received Rs. 1344 crore between 1988-98 period from 5 funding agencies including Foster Parents Plan International, CCF, USAID, ESE and Catholic Bishops Fund for Overseas Development, German agencies donated worth Rs. 3091 crore to Indian NGOs from 1991 to 1998. ESE of Germany donated Rs. 21.46 crore in 1991 and Rs. 59.03 crore in 1997-98 with an increase of 275%. CCF, USA donated Rs. 15.44 crore in 1991-92 and Rs. 64.78 crore in 1997-98 with an increase of 420%. Headwise contribution received by VOs was as follows:
Total 12,198 VOs received funds from abroad worth Rs. 2864.51 in 1997-98. foster Parents Plan International received Rs. 210.79 crore, World vision International Rs. 195.24 crore, CCI Council for Child -Rs. 158.46 crore, Largest recipient of contribution were states of Tamil Nadu- Rs. 2365 crore, Delhi-Rs. 2686 crore, Andhra Pradesh- Rs. 1691 crore, Maharashtra- Rs. 1518 crore, Karnataka-Rs. 1486 crore. In 1996, total 12,136 VOs received funds from foreign funding agencies worth Rs. 2,571.69 crore. Around 10% of the funds were received by religious organizations for religious purposes, 13.7 percent for construction purposes while only 0.4% was received for environment related issues. (Samuel, John (2000), :"Who is afraid of foreign funds", South Action, VANI, April)
Total 5 VOs of Madhya Pradesh are blacklisted by CAPART in 2009-10 on the charges of either misappropriation of funds or misutilisation of funds. During a training programme organized by fellow in 2000, most of the trainees expressed their opinion on lack of expertise on project management, upkeep of accounts, and financial management of funds received by funding agencies.
NGOs have found proper place in the documents of planning commission, finance commission, different reports of ministries and media. They have played admirable role in the service of differently abled, old age, women, and welfare of those suffered from disasters. Many educational institutions including have started programmes on NGO management for the development of professional capability among professionals to manage projects of NGOs and to excel in the service business. 

Dayawanti Punj Model School, Sitamarhi, an initiative by Punj Lyod
Illiteracy, superstitions, gender bias, lack of social awareness and poor hygiene have all contributed to the lack of growth in the Sitamarhi region. With the divine inspirations bestowed by Maa Sitaji and spirit of social service Mr. Punj thought to take such measures that could help the people in their upliftment. He visualized that education could be the first and best means to help them. He decided to introduce an educational project under the aegis of Pt. Kanahya Lal Dayawanti Punj Charitable Society founded by his parents. The School, ‘Dayawanti Punj Model School’, was established in the memory of his mother in 2003. The school provides freeships and scholarships as an incentive to parents to educate their daughters. The school is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). From 100 students five years ago, the school today has 1,100+ students from Nursery to Class 10. 
The school also provides free nutrient-rich mid-day meals to students from nursery to Class 3. Systematic medical check-ups are undertaken and the children are taught the importance of maintaining good health. 52 well qualified teachers from various parts of India, reside at the campus along with their families. The school has a training centre where the teachers are updated with the latest developments in teaching methodology and child psychology 
The hospital organizes health check up, treatment of diseases, operations including monthly eye operation camp, and other facilities for the residents of nearby villages The women work centre provides training to the women of adjoining villages in garment making etc. Awareness generation programmes are being organized fro the vaccination, protection of girl child, social evils, plantation, etc. 
Ministry of Corporate Affairs has recently issues requests to all corporate houses to undertake corporate social responsibility practices for the socio-economic development of the under-developed areas. The programme being undertaken by Punj Lloyd group is brain child of SNP Punj who devotes 5-6 days in a month at Sitamarhi looking after religious, spiritual and social activities. 

Revisiting Sitamarhi
I spent my childhood in Bhawanipur, my native village, approximately 20 kilometers far from Sitamarhi, and visited Sitamarhi many times with my friends and family members. I revisited Sitamarhi after a long gap. I was amazed to see the progress made in terms of road, electricity, transport, education under the patronage of socially responsible and spiritually inclined SNP Punj, the promoter of Punj Lloyd, as part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). 
Valmikiji very delicately defined the noble character of Maa Sita, her sincerity, devotion & sacrifice which made her an ideal woman. Her steadfastness to her beliefs was remarkable even though her life was full of pathos, agony and suffering. It was at Sita Marhi where she descended into the lap of Mother Earth. Swami Jitendranand Tirth once visited Sitamarhi and desired that a very magnificent memorial of Sitaji be built here. Sita Samahit temple stands exactly on the mound where Bhagwati Sitaji descended into Mother Earth. This was built with the kind help of Shri. Satya Narain Prakash Punj inspired by his mother. Within the campus of the main temple there exist temples of Maa Sita & Lord Shiva. There also stands 108 ft. high statue of Ram Bhakt Hanuman installed on an artificial rock of 20 ft. Under this hillock there is a cave having small temple of Hanumanji. There are three factors which prove that this was indeed the place where Sitaji had descended into the earth. Sita was abandoned near Valmiki Ashram during her exile and the Ashram stands in Sitamarhi. It was situated on the banks of the holy Ganga as described in the epic Ramayana and could be reached on a chariot from Ayodhya in a day. Valmiki has explained the geographical position of his ashram near the confluence of Tamsa and Ganga. The author of Ram Charit Manas, Goswami Tulsidas had visited this place while travelling from Varanasi (Kashi) to Allahabad (Prayag) and stayed for three days. He described the location of Sitamarhi between Baripur and Digpur. The two villages still exist and testify the location. He explained the location in his Kavitawali Uttarkand couplet 138. Shree Sita temple comprises of two storeys. In the basement, a beautiful white statue of Maa Sita is installed to depict her descending into the lap of Mother Earth while on the upper storey, Maa Sita stands as a worshipped goddess. The walls of the temple depict the important events of that period. The foundation stone of this magnificent temple was laid by the first lady of India, Mrs Vimla Sharma, wife of Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma, the then President of India.

The Punj Lloyd Group
Punj Lloyd Group is a diversified global conglomerate providing Engineering & Construction services in Oil & Gas, Infrastructure and Petrochemicals, and with interests in Defence, Aviation, Marine and Upstream sectors. With a turnover of US $2.6 billion, the Group’s three companies - Punj Lloyd headquartered in India, Sembawang Engineers & Constructors in Singapore, and Simon Carves in the United Kingdom, each with its own subsidiaries and joint ventures, converge to offer complementary services, rich experiences and the best practices from across the globe. 16 international offices and entities across the Middle East, the Caspian, Asia Pacific, Africa, South Asia, China and Europe, have established Punj Lloyd as a proven and reputed Group.
Having built projects across the world, the Group continues to provide integrated design, engineering, procurement, construction and project management services for the energy, infrastructure and petrochemical sectors. From pipelines, tanks and terminals to refineries, power plants to renewables, airports, rail transit systems to expressways, the Group offer EPC solutions across a wide spectrum of businesses. The Group explores and pursues the enormous opportunity in markets globally. Partnering with the best in their own arenas, Punj Lloyd brings technology and quality to clients worldwide and reiterates its belief of delivering the best, in services and manufacturing. An excellent track record for successful completion of projects within tight schedules, lends credibility to the Group, encouraging clients to trust it with repeat orders.
The Group’s key strengths are its varied experience, rich knowledge of local conditions, high standards of health, safety, quality and environment, accolades and recognitions from industry bodies and clients, its ability to manage operations in diverse industries and economies, long-term relationships with world-class clients and ability to mobilise financial resources. The huge fleet of equipment Punj Lloyd owns gives the company an edge over its competitors.

Joint Ventures
Dayim Punj Lloyd, Saudi Arabia and Kaefer Punj Lloyd, India. Corporate Social Responsibility at Punj Lloyd
The Company’s CSR initiatives are born out of a deep desire to make a significant change in the areas where it operates. The company focuses on two major areas: AIDS awareness and, by extension, life enrichment and education. Punj Lloyd is the First Corporate to fund the Indo-US Corporate Initiative for HIV/AIDS.
The Life Enrichment Programme - Construction workers are the mainstay of Punj Lloyd’s projects. Many of them are migrants, socially displaced and economically challenged; they travel many hundreds of miles in search of jobs. Often enough, government health programmes do not reach these people — precisely because they are on the move from one site to another. Punj Lloyd has taken upon it to address the challenge of health and life improvement of these migrant workers at its myriad construction sites in India. And it is addressing the challenge through its Life Enrichment Programme at every location where company operates. The Company recruits and train locals, empowering them with specialized skills and improving their employment potential. In addition, the company improves the area’s basic infrastructure by constructing wells, roads, improving drainage, providing water and electricity. The company provides regular health check-ups and counselling, deploy ambulances to remote villages, and provide assistance in emergencies.
Phase I of the Life Enrichment Programme was launched in February 2007 at Medicity, a multi-speciality institute that was being constructed by Punj Lloyd in Gurgaon, India. The project was initiated as a sustained programme of securing safe health practices for Punj Lloyd’s workers/employees at all levels at the site, with focused action on propagating an enabling environment for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. With SNS Foundation being the implementation partner, the one year project involved 1,400 unskilled and semi-skilled, marginally literate migrant workers employed by Punj Lloyd in the age range of 18-30 years.
In addition to educating these workers, the programme focused on access to healthcare, counselling and health building, through blood tests, free medical check-ups, free distribution of condoms and various educational tools to make them aware about a safer and healthier lifestyle. Phase I was a great success – so much so that people who were involved in the project have now become the core group that would educate others wherever they go. 
Appreciating the work done by Punj Lloyd during Phase I, International Finance Corporation (IFC) Washington supported the Company in Phase II of the Life Enrichment Project (LE II), where construction workers of the Company at three Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) sites are the target. The three sites are at Panipat (Haryana), Vadodara (Gujarat) and Haldia (West Bengal). The eighteen-month programme targets an overall improvement in health-seeking behaviour of 4,000 Punj Lloyd construction workers to substantially add to their self worth.

Objective  Donation ( in Rs. Crore) 

                                                          1991-92                  1997-98

(i)  Service to poor community               58.74                       210.06
(ii) Health and family welfare                 112.10                     306.43
(iii) Rural development                           132.3                       279.91
(iv) Assistance to destitute                   120.58                     191.2